Anterior surgical procedures:
Are mainly used when the front part of the spine is affected. The disc, the vertebral body, or the anterior longitudinal ligament.
Various techniques are used for example: Smith and Robinson or Cloward.
Posterior surgical procedure:
Are mainly used for injuries of the posterior ligamentous structures, such as the capsula or lig. flavum ruptures.
Combined anterior and posterior procedures:
Is used for severe anterior and posterior instability. Recommended for injuries to the cervical/thoracic junction.