Anterior versus posterior surgical procedures

Anterior surgical procedures:

Are mainly used when the front part of the spine is affected. The disc, the vertebral body, or the anterior longitudinal ligament.
Various techniques are used for example: Smith and Robinson or Cloward.

Posterior surgical procedure:

Are mainly used for injuries of the posterior ligamentous structures, such as the capsula or lig. flavum ruptures.

Combined anterior and posterior procedures:

Is used for severe anterior and posterior instability. Recommended for injuries to the cervical/thoracic junction.