Other consequences

Irritable bowel syndrome

IBS is mainly diagnosed through exclusion of other disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. It leads to cramping, diarrhea and flatulences. There are some theories about the cause of IBS and IBS-like symptoms can also occur with dysautnomia.
The ROM III criteria can be used to diagnose functional gastro intestinal disorders. The diagnosis of IBS is only given if there are no other physical diseases which would explain the symptoms. Endoscopic examinations and microbiological tests are used to exclude other gastrointestinal diseases.

IBS is mainly treated symptomatic and through diet changes.


Tinnitus is not a own entity it is more a symptom of another cause. Patients hear loud sounds in their ears which are described as ringing. Tinnitus could occur due to disturbed blood flow of the vertebral arteries. It is also discussed if Tinnitus is associated with whiplash injuries. Many diseases can cause Tinnitus, which is why it is necessary to exclude them all (MS, brain tumor). Hearing tests are used to diagnose Tinnitus.